The 5.4 liter (330.1 cubic inch) V8 is a member of the Modular engine family first introduced in the 1997 F-series pickups. Bore diameter is 3.552 inches and stroke is 4.165 inches. The 5.4 L 2V was built at the Windsor Engine Plant, while the 5.4 L 3V moved production to the Essex Engine Plant beginning in 2003, then back to Windsor Engine Plant in 2009. The SVT 5.4 L 4-valve engines are built at Romeo Engine Plant, hand assembled on the niche line. In 1999, Ford introduced the DOHC 4-valve 5.4 L and the following year it was used in the 2000 Ford Mustang SVT Cobra R and the Ford Shelby GT500. The SVT Cobra R version had a lot of upgrades, with features developed for Ford’s “Rough Rider” off-road racing program. The Shelby GT500 used a 4-valve DOHC 5.4 L with an Eaton M122H Roots type supercharger and air-to-liquid intercooler. The GT500 5.4 L shares its high-flow cylinder head castings with the Ford GT, with only minor machining differences, and shares camshafts with the 2003–2004 Ford Mustang SVT Cobra.